Umbilical Cord Care – List of Evidence

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Sometimes we exaggerate a bit with our research for our videos. Whenever that’s the case, our list of sources becomes so long that we cannot post it in the description below our video on youtube (because there, we can only post 5000 characters).

So, on this page, you can find all the scientific research studies and sources which the following video is based on:

Before we start: if you prefer to watch a video instead of reading our blogpost, check out the following video. In that video, we teach you everything you need to know about the best sleeping position to turn a breech baby.


American Academy of Pediatrics: Umbilical Cord Care.

American Academy of Pediatrics: Umbilical Hernia in Babies & Children.

Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. (2007). Evidence –based clinical practice guideline: Cord care. Neonatal Skin Care: Evidence –Based Clinical Practice Guideline (2nd ed). Washington D. C.: AWHONN.

Dore, S., Buchan, D., Coulas, S., Hamber, L., Stewart, M., Cowan, D., et al. (2006). Alcohol versus natural drying in newborn cord care. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 27(6), 621-627.

Erenel AS, Vural G, Efe SY, Ozkan S, Ozgen S, Erenoğlu R. Comparison of olive oil and dry-clean keeping methods in umbilical cord care as microbiological. Matern Child Health J. 2010 Nov;14(6):999-1004. doi: 10.1007/s10995-009-0536-4. PMID: 19946793.

Evens K, George J, Angst D, Schweig L. Does umbilical cord care in preterm infants influence cord bacterial colonization or detachment? J Perinatol. 2004 Feb;24(2):100-4. doi: 10.1038/ PMID: 14762447.

Golshan M, Hossein N. Impact of ethanol, dry care and human milk on the time for umbilical cord separation. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013 Sep;63(9):1117-9. PMID: 24601188.

Janeen Marie, Whitmore Newborn umbilical cord care: an evidence based quality improvement project (2010). Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Projects. 13.

Karumbi J, Mulaku M, Aluvaala J, English M, Opiyo N. Topical umbilical cord care for prevention of infection and neonatal mortality. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Jan;32(1):78-83. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182783dc3. PMID: 23076382; PMCID: PMC3785148.

McConnell, T.P., Lee, C.W., Couillard, M., & Sherrill, W.W. (2004). Trends in umbilical cord care: Scientific evidence for practice. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews (4), 211-222.

Medves JM, O’Brien BA. Cleaning solutions and bacterial colonization in promoting healing and early separation of the umbilical cord in healthy newborns. Can J Public Health. 1997 Nov-Dec;88(6):380-2. doi: 10.1007/BF03403910. PMID: 9458563; PMCID: PMC6990352.

Mullany LC, Shah R, El Arifeen S, Mannan I, Winch PJ, Hill A, Darmstadt GL, Baqui AH. Chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord and separation time: a cluster-randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2013 Apr;131(4):708-15. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2951. Epub 2013 Mar 18. PMID: 23509175.

Quattrin R, Iacobucci K, De Tina AL, Gallina L, Pittini C, Brusaferro S. 70% Alcohol Versus Dry Cord Care in the Umbilical Cord Care: A Case-Control Study in Italy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Apr;95(14):e3207. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000003207. PMID: 27057849; PMCID: PMC4998765.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. care of the umbilical cord: a review of the evidence. reproductive health (technical support) maternal and newborn health safe motherhood, Geneva: World Health Organization (1998).

Zupan J, Garner P, Omari AA. Topical umbilical cord care at birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;2004(3):CD001057. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001057.pub2. PMID: 15266437; PMCID: PMC6457922. 

Medical Disclaimer: The information on this page is not intended to diagnose, prevent, mitigate, treat or cure any disease! It is not personal medical advice. We recommend that you ask a doctor whenver you are looking for medical advice!


Nathalie Kaufmann & Mathias Ritter

Nathalie is a pregnancy and birth Consultant and a TCM Therapist with almost 20 years of experience in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture, reflexology, Shonishin baby massage techniques, Western and Eastern massage techniques (including TUINA), as well as herbal medicine and nutrition.

She has worked in hospitals across London and was Head of the Maternity Acupuncture Clinic at the Whittington hospital in London. Today, Nathalie runs her own company and helps pregnant women with pregnancy- and birth-related issues. She also specializes in alternative treatments for babies and children.

Mathias is a Researcher and Science Geek who holds two Master of Science degrees. He has been involved in several health-related businesses over the past 10 years and has held presentations about health-related topics across Europe. He specializes in research regarding pregnancy-, birth and baby-related topics.


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